近年來，中國的經濟持續起飛，人民的生活有了很大的改善。 隨著經濟的快速增長，社會結構亦起了變化，而截至2008年底，中國0-18 歲兒童總數是2.78億人，當中有特殊需求的兒童數量卻有顯注上升趨勢。
【Children problem worsens】
The social structure in China has changed in recent years. As of the end of 2008, there were 278 million children aged 0-18, of which the number of children with special needs grew significantly.
【A difficult life】
Children with special needs belong to a disadvantaged group, which encompasses orphans, children with disabilities, migrant children, left-behind children, children coming from a single-parent family, children who are the victims of violence or child abuse, and children with AIDS etc. Some of the disadvantaged children are indeed the poorest and most miserable children in the country. For most of the time, they go to school with an empty stomach; some of them only have one meal each day, and do not always have meat every month.
While under-nutrition such as anaemia is still common among children, in 2009, left-behind children in rural China generally have a higher prevalence of stunting and a lower birth weight rate, which is about 1.5 times more than non-left-behind children. Multiple reports regarding children’s health among the floating population reveal that migrant children, as opposed to urban children, have a higher chance of contracting anaemia and a significantly slower physical development.
【A lack of care】
Lacking in parental education and management, most of the disadvantaged children do not have good hygienic habits. Regarding their safety, since no one takes care of them, or their guardians offer little guardianship, many left-behind children and orphans prefer lingering in the streets, forming groups and gangs.
留守兒童” 是指父母雙方或一方外出到城市打工。他們一般與自己的父親或母親中的一人，或者與上輩親人，甚至父母親的其他親戚、朋友一起生活。由於留守兒童跟父母長期分開，可能一年只能夠見一次面，在這種 情況下，這些兒童特別容易感覺孤單、自信心偏低、行為亦會出現偏差，同時，學習也受到影響。
As of 2010, there was a floating population of 221 million in China, with some migrant workers bringing along their children to the city. As these migrant workers earn little, the standard of living of such a household greatly falls short of their urban counterparts. Families of migrant workers are not included in the urban population registration and management system, thus becoming the “visible yet countless” group, unable to enjoy welfares such as studying in public schools free-of-charge. Under such precarious living conditions, a majority of migrant children suffer from diseases such as anaemia and malnutrition. At present, they are imperatively in need of a basic, nutritious meal.
Left-behind children are those whose parents (or parent) have (or has) gone to work in the city. They usually live with either of their parents, their grandparents, relatives or family friends. These children are separated from their parents for a long period of time, usually only seeing each other once a year. Under such circumstances, left-behind children will easily feel lonely and have a low self-esteem. Behavioural problems will surface, and their learning will also be affected.
According to the latest statistics published by the Ministry of Civil Affairs, there are more than 70 million orphans in China, with nearly 90% living in rural villages. They are generally subject to discrimination, abuse and starvation.
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